Collaborators: Harold Chiu, Jing Xie
Conducted at University of Toronto
Collaborators: Harold Chiu, Jing Xie
Conducted at University of Toronto
Online synchronous tutoring allows for immediate engagement between instructors and audiences over distance. However, tutoring physical skills remains challenging because current telepresence approaches may not allow for adequate spatial awareness and viewpoint control of the demonstration activities scattered across an entire work area and the instructor’s sufficient awareness of the audience. We present Asteroids, a novel design space for tangible robotic telepresence, to enable workbench-scale physical embodiments of remote people and tangible interactions by the instructor. With Asteroids, the audience can actively control a swarm of mini-telepresence robots, change camera positions, and switch to other robots’ viewpoints. Demonstrators can perceive the audiences’ physical presence while using tangible manipulations to control the audiences’ viewpoints and presentation flow. We conducted an exploratory evaluation for Asteroids with 12 remote participants in a model-making tutorial scenario with an architectural expert demonstrator. Results suggest our unique features benefited participant engagement, sense of presence, and understanding.
Urban design and planning professionals have long written about the benefits of density. Density in urban areas is what makes mass transit and affordable housing possible. It creates districts that are safe, vibrant and walkable. However, ever since COVID-19 swept across the globe, and people are forced to stay apart from each other more than ever, they start to question the rationale behind these density theories. It’s not hard to understand, as the hardest-hit cities are also the ones that are the most densely populated, even the Governor called the level of density in New York 'destructive’ in the context of this pandemic.
COVID-19 is challenging many of our long-held beliefs and it wouldn’t be surprising if it transformed our way of building cities. But if density was really the decisive factor for a city to become an epicentre, then why are cities like Hong Kong, Seoul and Singapore have spared themselves from a major outbreak? Are the critics of urban density oversimplifying the issue?
This project seeks to explore the relationship between urban density and the level of COVID-19 severity by comparing the data across different ZIP code zones in New York City.
It is intuitively reasonable to have the view that denser urban areas are more susceptible of becoming epicenters of COVID-19. Because this is what the mass media and government officials tell us. As the hardest hit city in North America, the density of New York City is often highlighted as the one of the major reasons behind its COVID severity. However, based on our analysis, there is no correlation between urban density and covid severity.
Built FAR is the relationship between total amount of usable floor area a building has to the land area. For instance, a high-rise condo might have Built FAR of 50, and a bungalow might have Built FAR of 1. And this metric allows us to measure density consistently.
Here's the built FAR map overlaid with case rate, as we can see, the densest built area in New York City such as lower and midtown Manhattan do not have the highest COVID case rate.
Since COVID is transmitted through human droplets, we looked at another component population density. Surprisingly, when the base map is changed to population density, there is still no clear correlation between the two.
Our linear regression analysis also validated the initial observations.
Here is a map of education level illustrated by colour, with case rate depicted by the proportional symbol map overlaid on top. A more saturated violet colour indicates higher education attainment, and larger dot size represents higher COVID-19 case rate for each neighbourhood.
As it is shown, the more saturated violet regions have smaller dots, which shows that higher education is potentially correlated with lower case-rates.
In linear regression analysis, education proved to be the strongest correlate of all the variables we explored, by far. As the level of education increases, the case rate decreases. With points tightly scattered about the regression line, and high R-squared of 0.7. This is consistent with the observation from the map.
We also examined the relationship between income per capita versus case rate. From the images below we can see that income and case rate are inversely proportional.
New York State (2020). Health Facility General Information. Retrieved 8 July 2020, from https://health.data.ny.gov/Health/Health-Facility-General-Information/vn5v-hh5r
NYC Health (2020). COVID-19: Data. Retrieved 8 July 2020, from https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data.page
NYC Planning (2020). PLUTO & MapPLUTO. Retrieved 8 July 2020, from https://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/data-maps/open-data/dwn-pluto-mappluto.page
United States Census Bureau (2020). American Community Survey Data. Retrieved 8 July 2020, from https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/data.html
Pisciculture and floriculture consumption are of vital importance as one fulfills Kolkata’s average residents’ physical need in food and the latter supports their social need in religion practice.
As the core of religious rituals in Kolkata, up to 1,500 tons of fresh-cut flowers are exchanged at Kolkata Flower Market daily before being distributed to retailers and temples. Nonetheless, major flower suppliers travel up to 12 hours to reach Malik Ghat Market, in this primitive transportation process, a large portion of flowers are withered and thus wasted.
Currently, the wetlands directly supply 13,000 tons of fish to Kolkata annually while treating 60% of its sewage water. However, pisciculture is losing its people to other industries as fishermen struggle to make a profit from the shallowing ponds caused by city pollution.
While indigenous ice making has long been a tradition practiced by the Calcuttans. Yet, it is the scarcity of ice which limits the distance and time allowed for fish and flower transportation/storage and constrains the development of by-product industries in Kolkata.
Inspired by the natural sewage treating system and the different levels of water exchanged in the wetland, our proposal challenges the conventional way of ice making by introducing ice of varied qualities, catering to the different needs of environmental cooling, fish/flower transportation and human consumption.
As temporality is a unique aspect of Kolkata, an area prone to monsoons, our project aims at transplanting the agricultural calendar into physical design interventions. By overlaying cycles of pisciculture, floriculture and ice with natural rainfall, solar radiation and temperature patterns, we are introducing three critical points on the hydrological system for further elaboration.
Building compelling augmented reality (AR) experiences is challenging due to designers inability to assess how uncontrolled contexts can influence the user experience.
Current approaches include capturing the end user’s environment through imagery or video; and building mini-size studio-interactive spaces to emulate AR environments. However, the former approach can raise privacy concerns and the later approach involves physical setups that are costly and time-consuming.
We propose a non-intrusive, low-cost approach that supports rapid iterations for AR designers through gathering data from crowdworkers in a privacy friendly manner.
The evaluation framework extends classical 3D ui evaluation metrics by adding an AR specific persepctive-- context performance.
A augmented reality prototype is being tested is different scenarios.